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The word “Gure” is a Fulani word meaning “Zango” or “Ruga”. When translated into Hausa language, it means a human settlement. Gure people call themselves “Agbiri” which means “the men.” They are found mostly in Lere and Kauru local government areas of Kaduna State.
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Gure is an ethnic group made up of several clusters of settlements located in an isolated hillside fifteen kilometres west of Lere Town in Lere LGA of Kaduna State. The people are comparatively smooth-skinned, light in complexion and slim built. These features tend to support their claim of being of Fulani descent. They were de-isolated and brought to the limelight by the coming of the Christian Missionaries who settled there in the early 1930s and built the oldest primary school in Lere and Kauru Local Government Areas in 1942 and a Bible school in 1948. Gure people believe they have their origin from Baghdad, in the Middle East. The claim of having the same ancestor with the Fulani has popular support among the Gure people and their neighbours as well as with the Fulani people themselves.

Brief History

The early history of the Gure people traced their ancestry to the Fulani ethnic group and their origin in the Middle East. They moved to the Niger Republic and settled at a place called Gure/Guri. It is not certain whether this place was called Gure prior to their arrival or it was named so at or upon their arrival. From the Niger Republic, they moved southwards to Borno where they settled at Kukawa. They later moved to Sokoto and from there to Katsina.
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The Agbiri people later moved into the Bauchi Plateau and settled at Gumau in Bauchi State. Although the Gure people of Gumau in Bauchi do not understand the language of the Gure people of the Lere Local Government Area, the Agbiri people believe that the Gurawa of Gumau were historically part of them. The Agbiri people later moved from Gumau to Lazuru about five kilometres east of Saminaka. Evidence of Agbiri habitation at Lazuru still exists. There is a well on top of the hills where they settled. The well still contains water to date. This well is referred to as Gure well by the present inhabitants of Lazuru. Migrations of Agbiri/Gure people from place to place remain undated. The movements were however a result of the turbulent nature of those times. The cause of migration is attributed largely to the people’s efforts to escape slave raids and the search for more fortified and hidden places to escape the hostility of neighbours. The migrations were also the result of the need for greener pasture to graze their cattle. The Gure people migrated from Lazuru, and their movement took them west of Lazuru to the eastern tips of Gure hills where they finally settled. The precise period when they moved out of Lazuru remains unknown but it must have been long before the Fulani Jihad. On their arrival at Kauru hills, they settled by the following hills: Kasab, Kushin, Ugana, Kudara, Kawara, Pidama, Kagboyo, Kapenti, Kushaja and Kagambu. The hills formed a ring that provided natural fortification against invaders. The Gure people built a stonewall linking these hills together to form the city wall. This wall is known as “Kaghan” had gates for entrance and exit. There were basically two major settlements. Those that settled on the north-western side of the hills are known as “Anazani” (hill people) and those that settled on the southern side are known as “Anagani” (lowland people).


They speak a language they call “Gbiri-niragu”.

Religious Beliefs

Before the arrival of the Sudan Interior Missions (S.I.M), the Agbiri ethnic group adhered to traditional African religion. They are now predominantly Christians.

Sociopolitical Structure

The Gure-Kahugu people group is ruled by a king, called the “Ukarma’’.

Major Settlements and villages

The principal villages established in the plain land are “Aneghan” and “Anazani”. These have multiplied into several villages as follows: Upah, Udammi, Sabon Kaura, Kakunga-Kugbi, Natere, Kadigi/Kitimi, Kabiza, Kakumu, Khalobi, Kabi, Nipanah, Garin Madaki, Abanna-Kakidare, Garin Padama, Jamaica, Ka’anguwa, Mayala, Adawoh, Kadigi, Anu-tsan, etc. Sources: Joshua Project The Echoes of hope Featured Image Source: Artwork Archive
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This article was first published on 16th March 2021


Jeremiah is a scholar and a poet. He has a keen eye for studying the world and is passionate about people. He tweets at @jeremiahaluwong.

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